We try to act in an environmentally friendly way at all times on the island and would appreciate your support. We have a government approved "no-fish zone" all around the island and we try as best we can to persuade fishermen not to use nets off our reef.

We have a recycling program in the island and we would be extremely grateful if you could take part in our environmental mission by segregating the waste into different types (glass, metal, plastic and paper waste) are carried to Bintan for recycling.

Our lavatories are connected to septic tanks. You may flush toilet paper in moderation, but please refrain from flushing plastics, cigarette butts and other solid wastes.


For a small offshore island, Pangkil is home to an astonishing diversity of plants. The islands natural vegetation comprises coastal forest with a wide variety of trees and shrubs capable of living in the relatively dry conditions with salt laden winds. The wooded areas are dominated by the spectacular Seashore Screwpines, large Beach Almonds, Sea Apple, Sea Teak and Sea Hibiscus. The sandy shores support Sea Lettuce, Noni trees, pretty seashore morning glory and the seashore crinum lily. There are over 40 species of plants in the island-including two stands of mangrove trees.

Dedicated information of the island
s natural history is available in the island along with reference books and maps. You may help us by sharing your discoveries so we can add them to our growing species list.

Survey Record at 20th August 2002 by Subaraj Rajathurai and Helen Newman


Beach Almond Terminalia Catappa
Sea Apple Eugenia Grandis
Sea Teak Podocarpus Polystachyus
Sea Hibiscus Hibiscus Tiliaceus
Sea Posion Barringtonia Asiatica
Greater Morinda Morinda Rigida
Sea Randa Guettarda Speciosa
Mangrove Tree Phizophora Stylosa
Maingay's Dracena Dracena Maingayi
Alexandrine Laurel Calophyllum Inophyllum
Strangler Fig Ficus sp.
Mata Pelandok Ardisia Elliptica
Tongkat Ali Eurycoma Longifolia
Seashore Screwpine Pandanus Odoratissimus
Pandan Pandanus sp.
Coconut Palm Cocos Nucifera
Fishtail Palm Caryota Mitis
Pallas Palm Licuala Spinosa
Nibong Palm Oncosperma Tigillaria
Malayan Fern Palm Cycas Rumphii Fern-Palm
Bird's Nest Fern Asplenium Nidus
Oak Leaf Fern Drynaria sp.
Rabbit's Foot Fern Davallia Denticulata
Sword Fern Nephrolepis
Pigeon Orchid Dendrobium crumenatum
Sea Lettuce Scaevola sericea
Seashore Crinum Lily Crinum asiaticum
Seashore Tacca Lily Tacca leontopetaloides
Wild Ixora Ixora congesta
Three-leaved Wild Vine Cayratia trifolia
Seashore Morning Glory Ipomoea pescaprae
Hoya Hoya verticillata
Wild Water Lemon Passiflora foetida
Purple-leaf Buttonweed Borreria laevicaulis
Coat Buttons Tridax procumbens
Purple Cloeme Cloeme rutidosperma
Common Asystasia Asystasia intrusa
Sea Oxeye Wedelia biflora
Wedelia biflora Emilia sonchifolia
Seashore Centepede Grass Ischaemum muticum
Egyptian Finger Grass Dactyloctenium aegyptium
Kylinga Cyperus sp. sedge
Frangipanni Hibiscus
Bougainville Papaya
Devil's Backbone Heliconia
Fan Palm Banana
Yam Tapioca


The woods provide a home for the melodious Magpie Robin, pretty little sunbirds, Kingfishers, Tailor Birds and Flowerpeckers. The Changeable Hawk Eagle is commonly sighted soaring above the island along with the handsome Brahminy Kite. A total of 19 birds have already been identified in the Island.

The Great Mormon is one of the most common butterflies present in Pangkil and there are also interesting land snails, the beautiful Golden Web Spider, lizards, grasshoppers and ghost crabs.

Exploring the mangrove will reveal periwinkles, mudskippers, halfbeaks, cardinal fish, and a variety of scurrying crabs. The sea shore at low tide reveals more treasures, with sea cucumbers, stone crabs, anemones, shrimps and sponges to name a few. Reef-shoes are essential for exploring here; sharp spiny molluscs and even the odd fish can strike the unwary.

The island is surrounded by a shallow fringing reef and snorkellers will find plenty to keep themselves amused. Plate, massive and mushroom corals predominate the reef with patches of staghorn coral, daisy coral, leather corals and the occasional giant clam.

Ticking within the corals are more than half a dozen species of damsel fish, along with shuffling goat fish, butterfly fish, snappers, wrasse, rabbit fish and tusk fish. You can look out for at least two species of the playful anemone fish and passing schools of yellow-tailed barracuda, fusiliers, parrotfish and perhaps catch a glimpse of the blue spotted stingray.

Survey Record at 20th August 2002 by Subaraj Rajathurai and Helen Newman


Island Flying Fox Pteropus hypomelanus
Small Toed Sea-Otter Amblonyx cinerea
Striated Heron Butorides striatus
Brahminy Kite Haliastur indus
Changeable Hawk Eagle Spizaetus cirrhatus
Black-naped Tern Sterna sumatrana
Pied Imperial Pigeon Ducula bicolor
Black-Nest Swiftlet Collocalia maxima
Collared Kingfisher Todirhampus chloris
Olive-winged Bulbul Pycnonotus plumosus
Black-naped Oriole Oriolus chinensis
Large-billed Crow Corvus macrorhynchos
Oriental Magpie Robin Copsychus saularis
Rufous-tailed Tailorbird Orthotomus sericeus
Mangrove Whistler Pachycephala grisola
Brown-throated Sunbird Anthreptes malacensis
Olive-backed Sunbird Nectarinia jugularis
Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker Dicaeum cruentatum
Malayan Water Monitor Varanus Salvator
Common House Gecko Hemidactylus Frenatus


Common Mormon Papilio polytes
Great Mormon Papilio iswara
Blue Glassy Tiger Ideopsis vulgaris
Common Palmfly Elymnias hypermnestra
Common Tit Hypolycaena erylus
Cycad Blue Chilades pandava
Arhopala Arhopala amphimuta
Skipper Telicota besta
Hawk Moth sp.
Globe Skimmer Pantala flavescens
Tiger Dragon Rhyothemis phyllis
Sea Skater Halovelia sp.
Katydid ?
Grasshopper Orthoptera
Cockroach ?
Kerengga Ant ?
Common Golden Web Spider Nephila maculata
Red Millipede ?
Tree Snail sp.
Land Hermit Crab Coenobita cavipes
Ghost Crab Ocypode ceratophthalma



Hermit Crab Digenes sp.
Purple Climber Crab Metapograpsus sp.
Stone Crab Myomenippe hardwicki
Swimming Crab Portunidae
Nerite Snail Nerite sp.
Dog Whelk Nassarius sp.
Periwinkle Littoraria sp.
Lightning Dove Pictocolumbella ocellata
Sea Slug Onchidium sp. slug
Giant Clam Tridacna gigas
Boring Clam Tridacna crocea
Bat star ?
Black Sea Cucumber Holothuria atra


Vermiculated Angelfish Chaetodontoplus mesoleucus
Banded Sergeant Abudefduf septemfasciatus
Indopacific Sergeant Abudefduf saxatilis
Scissortail Sergeant Abudefduf sexfasciatus
Narrow-banded Sergeant Abudefduf bengalensis
Staghorn Damsel Amblyglyphidodon curacao
Lagoon Damsel Hemiglyphidodon plagiometopon
Black Damsel Neoglyphidodon melas
Five-banded Damsel Dischistodus fasciatus
Honeyhead Damsel Dischistodus prosopotaenia
Whitepatch Damsel Dischistodus chrysopoecillus
Lemon Damsel Pomacentrus moluccensis
Threespot Damsel Pomacentrus tripunctatus
Tomato Anemonefish Amphiprion frenatus
Clark's Anemonefish Amphiprion clarkii
Pale-tail Chromis Chromis xanthura
Blue-Green Chromis Chromis viridis
Blackspot Snapper Lutjanus ehrenbergii
Checkered Snapper Lutjanus decussatus
Stripey Snapper Lutjanus carponotatus
John's Snapper Lutjanus johnii
Spotted Chisel-toothed Wrasse Anampses caeruleopunctatus
Moon Wrasse Thalassoma lunare
Green-spotted Wrasse Halichoeres chloropterus
Brown-stripe Wrasser Halichoeres bicolor
Silty Wrasse Halichoeres purpurescens
Checkerboard Wrasse Halichoeres hortulanus
Anchor Tuskfish Choerodon anchorago
Blackeye Thicklip Hemigymnus melapterus
Copperband Butterflyfish Chelmon rostratus
Eight-banded Butterflyfish Chaetodon octofasciatus
Green-finned Parrotfish Scarus sordidus
Ember Parrotfish Scarus rubroviolaceus
White-shouldered Whiptail Scolopsis frenatus
Butterfly Whiptail Pentapodus setosus
Clown Sweetlips Plectorhinchus cheatodonoides
Dusky Blenny Cirripectes filamentosus
Coral Blenny Ecsenius yaeyamensis
Long-finned Goby Valenciennea muralis
Dusky-gilled Mudskipper Periophthalmus novemradiatus
Barred Rabbitfish Siganus virgatus
Bar-tailed Goatfish Upeneus tragula
Six-barred Angelfish Euxiphipops sexstriatus
Striped Barracuda Sphyraena flavicauda
Blue-spotted Fantail Stingray Taeniura lymna
Fusilier Caesio sp.
Cardinalfish Apogon sp.
Green Turtle Chelonia Mydas